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Psychological Therapy

by Klaus Grawe

Print edition

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€74.95

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€66.99

The original edition of Klaus Grawe's book exploring the basis and need for a more generally valid concept of psychotherapy fueled a lively debate among psychotherapists and psychologists in German-speaking areas. Now available in English, this book will help spread the concepts and the debate among a wider audience. The book is written in dialog form. A practicing therapist, a research psychologist, and a therapy researcher take part in three dialogs, each of which builds on the results of the previous dialog. The first dialog explores how therapeutic change takes place, while the second looks at how the mechanisms of action of psychotherapy can be understood in terms of basic psychological concepts. Finally, in the third dialog, a psychological theory of psychotherapy is developed. The practical implications of this are clearly shown in the form of case examples, as well as guidance on indications and treatment planning. The dialog ends with suggestions as to how therapy training and provision of psychotherapy could be improved on the basis of the model of psychotherapy that has been developed.


Table of Contents

First Dialogue – How Are Changes Achieved Through Psychotherapy?

Part 1: Entering Into Dialogue
The participants present themselves; Mysteries of therapeutic change; The phenomenon of rapid improvements at the beginning of therapy

Part 2: Psychotherapy Seen From the Expectancy-ValuePerspective
Change of expectations as a general change mechanism in therapy; Placebo-effects and expectancy induction; Expectancy induction and resource activation; The interplay of general and disorder-specific working principles; Each mental disorder has its own disorder-specific dynamics: Agoraphobia as an example; The significance of expectancy-value theories for the understanding of the mechanisms of psychotherapy; Differences in the mechanisms of mastery- versus clarification-oriented therapies; Therapy this side and that side of the Rubicon; Therapeutic effects through activation and deactivation of intentions; The formation and realization of intentions as different focuses of clarification- and mastery-oriented therapies; Psychotherapy as a process of motivational clarification for the formation of clear intentions; The process aspect of motivational clarification

Part 3: Efficacy Principles of Psychotherapy
The working mechanism of intention realization; The working mechanism of intention modification; The working mechanism of processual activation; The working mechanism of resource activation; Working mechanisms instead of therapeutic methods

Part 4: Psychotherapy Under the Conflict Perspective
The therapeutic relevance of motivational conflicts; On the relevance of corrective emotional experiences regarding unconscious conflicts; On the mechanisms of cognitive therapies under the conflict perspective; On the integrative potential of the cognitive therapy approach; On the relevance of motivational conflicts for mental disorders - agoraphobia; Conflict dynamics as a task of empirical research

Part 5: Psychotherapy From the Relationship Perspective
The significance of interpersonal relationships for psychotherapy; The therapeutic relationship under the aspect of processual activation; The therapeutic relationship from the problem perspective; The therapeutic relationship from the resource perspective; On the interpersonal nature of human mental life; On the mechanisms of interpersonal therapies; On the mechanisms of couples therapy; On the mechanisms of family therapies

Part 6: Summary and Conclusions
The multiple meanings of what happens in therapy and the consequences; Indication and case conception in a general psychotherapy

Second Dialogue – Towards a Psychological Understanding of How Psychotherapy Works Or: Foundations of Psychological Therapy

Part 1: Mental Processes From a Systems Perspective
Experience, behavior and unconscious processes in psychology and psychotherapy; A systems conception of the interaction between behavior, experience and unconscious processes; The interplay of conscious and unconscious processes on the higher levels of psychological activity; Contemporaneous conscious and unconscious processes and their significance for conceiving of mental processes; On the functional role of mental processes being conscious; Linking the systems conception with the Rubicon model

Part 2: Foundations of Experiencing and Behavior
Perception as an active construction process; The neural bases of perception; No perception without expectation; The memory as the sum of all expectations and activation tendencies; Differentiating various forms of memory; Implicit and explicit memory; Differences in accessing the explicit and implicit memory and their relevance for psychotherapy; Therapeutic change of activated memory content; Implicit perception and learning; Conditioning processes and their significance for psychotherapy; Change as emergence of new neural activation patterns; Learning under the influence of goals; Learning in psychotherapy from the perspective of expectancy-value theories; How to conceive neural activation patterns as the basis of mental functioning; The emotional quality of mental functioning; The therapeutic change of emotions; Goal-regulated versus emotion-regulated behavioral control; Emotion and nonverbal regulation of relations; Nonverbal-analog and verbal-digital communication have a different neural basis; The significance of nonverbal communication for psychotherapy

Part 3: Determinants of Experience and Behavior
Who controls our mental life?; Motivational tendencies and schemata; The significance of motivational schemata for psychotherapy; Therapeutic change of motivational schemata; Motivational schemata and relational schemata; Intentional, avoidance and conflict schemata and their significance for mental disorders; How can the simultaneity of several goal-oriented mental processes be theoretically conceived? The two forms of functioning of psychological activity and their specific mechanisms: The implicit and the rational mode of functioning; What is the self? Basic human needs as highest standards of psychological activity; The need for orientation and control; The need for increasing pleasure and avoiding pain; The attachment need; The need to increase self-esteem; The consistency principle and its functional significance in mental functioning; Mechanisms for maintaining consistency; A model of psychological functioning;

Part 4: Mental Functioning Seen From a Dynamic Development Perspective
The concept of self-organization; The concept of the attractor; The function of attractors in mental processes; The development and change of mental attractors; The special character of and differences between the therapeutically significant attractors; Motivational attractors; Emotional attractors; Mental disorders as disorder attractors; Interpersonal attractors; The development and treatment of mental disorders from the self-organization perspective

Third Dialogue – A Psychological Therapy Model

Part 1: A Psychological Theory of Psychotherapy
A Component Model as an Explanation of the Mechanism of Psychotherapy
From theory to practice; Improvement of well-being through positive control; Improving well-being through positive interpersonal experiences; Improving well-being by self-esteem increasing experiences; The first component of effective psychotherapy: Inconsistency reduction through resource activation; The second component of psychotherapeutic change: Destabilization of disorder attractors through problem-specific interventions; The therapeutic functions of resource activation; The third component of psychotherapeutic change: Inconsistency reduction through the modification of motivational schemata; Inconsistency reduction through therapeutic clarification work; Inconsistency reduction through corrective experiences; Inconsistency as a breeding ground and control parameter of mental disorders; Inconsistency and comorbidity; Differential indication of disorder-centered and motivation-changing therapeutic interventions; The interplay of the three change components in real therapies; The value of the component model for therapeutic practice
A System of Aspects Relevant for the Mechanisms of Therapy
Dimensions and perspectives of therapies; Applying the system to individual therapies; Applying the system to phenomena in psychotherapy; Psychotherapy from the intra-personal perspective; Psychotherapy from the interpersonal perspective;

Part 2: Psychological Therapy in Practice
Clarification and Indication
Arriving at the indication via clarification; The clarification process
Therapy Planning and Execution
Developing a tailored therapy plan; Schema analysis; Consistency analysis; Case example for a psychological therapy
Psychotherapy Training and Care
The identity of psychological therapists; What makes a good therapist? Psychological therapy in the health-care system

Epilogue
References
Author Index
Subject Index

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