Brief glossary of electronic publishing

This brief glossary aims to provide an initial overview of some of the vocabulary used in electronic publishing, both for ebooks and in online journals. We have deliberately kept the explanations short – and we aim to update the glossary at irregular intervals.

Altmetric Score

The Altmetric™ Score tracks a wide range of online reactions to a scientific publication – measuring things like mentions in blogs or social networks (Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn …), citations on Wikipedia, etc.

APC (Article Processing Charge)

Publishing a scientific article and keeping it available online involves many steps, costs, and overheads. In the traditional subscription model, these costs are effectively borne by the readers and subscribers, who pay to read the articles and the journal. Another way of covering these costs for open access journals or articles is the “article processing charge”, which is typically paid by an author or her/his funding body, so subscription revenue is not needed, and the article can be published online open access, free to be read by anyone.
See also Hogrefe OpenMind

CHPD Online

The online version of our bestselling practical reference work on psychotropic drugs, the Clinical Handbook of Psychotropic Drugs, now in its 22nd print edition.


An official DOI registration agency, founded in 2000 as a nonprofit organization in a cooperative effort among publishers to enable persistent cross-publisher linking of references in online publications. Hogrefe was one of the earliest members of Crossref.

Deep Link

Direct link to an eBook, online article, or other digital offering on a specific website or platform, rather than a link to a homepage.

Discovery Service

A service on an online platform or website (e.g., a university library) that allows users to search and find content of differing types (e.g., books, journals, abstracts, data collections) and from different data sources (e.g., from different publishers, different platforms) in one search.

DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

A unique, permanent identifier for electronic publications (e.g., a journal article, an eBook, a dataset). Hogrefe is a member of Crossref (see also Crossref), an organization that supplies such identifiers. The use of a DOI in (for instance) a reference list means that a user who clicks on the reference is taken direct to the original publication.

Dorsch – Lexikon der Psychologie

A print book and online portal - the German-language standard work in psychology, a cross between an encyclopedia and a dictionary, that defines and explaining basic terms and concepts in psychology.


An electronic “book” that can be read on a computer or other reading device. Formats include PDF, where the eBook is static, displays like the layout in the printed book, and has relatively limited functions; and ePub, where the eBook reflows and adapts to the screen size used and can include other interactive functions (such as animations, multiple choice questions).


Electronic learning; learning using electronic and digital media.

Hogrefe eContent

The online journals platform of the Hogrefe group. Individual subscribers and institutional users can search in and read in 54 journals that we publish. Non-subscribers can purchase online articles and individual issues. Content is mainly in English and German, with some French.

Hogrefe eLibrary

The eBook collection of the Hogrefe publishing group, for institutions and libraries, including more than 1,600 book titles, with German and English content.

Hogrefe OpenMind

Our “hybrid” open access publishing model for journal articles. Detailed information is here:


Independent online platform with tools for (mainly journal) authors. Authors can explain, link, and share short descriptions with a worldwide network of researchers and a broader audience. They can see a dashboard showing how the article is mentioned (e.g., on social networks) and its Altmetric score. Kudos is supported by Hogrefe and is provided to our authors free of charge.
See also:


Structured data records for a publication or product, which we distribute to industry and other partners. Metadata for books include bibliographic records used by bookstores (Onix) or libraries (MARC). Journal article metadata are distributed to a wide range of indexing and discovery services.

Open Access

Content that can be read by anyone without payment or technical access barriers.

Open Data / Open Material

Freely accessible sets of data such as the detailed results of research studies, open norm data, and other resources such as images, videos, etc.

Open Educational Resources

Freely accessible learning and teaching materials.

Open Science

The term “open science” bundles the various “open” ideas (open access, open data, open peer-review) and refers to the aim of making all steps within the scientific process open, transparent, and accessible without barriers to all.

Open Source

Software with source code that is made publicly available and may be distributed and used or modified without charge in most cases.

ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID)

Internationally widely accepted unique personal identifier, used mainly by scientists and researchers, that (among other things) aims to eliminate confusion between researchers with the same name.


Generally defined as efforts to bring services or information to people where they live or spend time. In science publishing, it usually means communicating with multipliers in a specific field and with people outside of that field to increase awareness of published content.

(Pre-)Registered Reports

A publishing procedure in tune with “open science” that aims to reduce the “publishing bias” that is thought to lead to more “positive” results and fewer “negative” results being published. Basically, a manuscript (with theory, methods, hypothesis, etc.) is submitted, reviewed, and accepted in principle for publication before the research is carried out. This manuscript is often called the “Stage 1” or “pre-registered” manuscript. Once the research has been carried out, the final parts of the paper (e.g., results, conclusion) are added and the final (“stage 2”) paper is published in the journal.

Text und Data Mining

Basically, turning large amounts of text into a set of data that can then be analyzed statistically or computationally for patterns and trends. Applications may include security (monitoring), medicine (public health), identifying bias in the media, and improving information retrieval in research.