Brief glossary of electronic publishing

This brief glossary aims to provide an initial overview of some of the vocabulary used in electronic publishing, both for ebooks and in online journals. We have deliberately kept the explanations short – and we aim to update the glossary at irregular intervals.

Altmetric Score

The Altmetric™ Score tracks a wide range of online reactions to a scientific publication – measuring things like mentions in blogs or social networks (Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn …), citations on Wikipedia, etc.

APC (Article Publication Charge)

Publishing a scientific article and keeping it available online involves many steps, costs, and overheads. In the traditional subscription model, these costs are effectively borne by the readers and subscribers, who pay to read the articles and the journal. Another way of covering these costs for open access journals or articles is the “article publication charge”, which is typically paid by an author or her/his funding body, so subscription revenue is not needed, and the article can be published online open access, free to be read by anyone.
See also Hogrefe OpenMind

CHPD Online

The online version of our bestselling practical reference work on psychotropic drugs, the Clinical Handbook of Psychotropic Drugs, now in its 22nd print edition.


An official DOI registration agency, founded in 2000 as a nonprofit organization in a cooperative effort among publishers to enable persistent cross-publisher linking of references in online publications. Hogrefe was one of the earliest members of Crossref.

Deep Link

Direct link to an eBook, online article, or other digital offering on a specific website or platform, rather than a link to a homepage.

Discovery Service

A service on an online platform or website (e.g., a university library) that allows users to search and find content of differing types (e.g., books, journals, abstracts, data collections) and from different data sources (e.g., from different publishers, different platforms) in one search.

DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

A unique, permanent identifier for electronic publications (e.g., a journal article, an eBook, a dataset). Hogrefe is a member of Crossref (see also Crossref), an organization that supplies such identifiers. The use of a DOI in (for instance) a reference list means that a user who clicks on the reference is taken direct to the original publication.

Dorsch – Lexikon der Psychologie

A print book and online portal - the German-language standard work in psychology, a cross between an encyclopedia and a dictionary, that defines and explaining basic terms and concepts in psychology.


An electronic “book” that can be read on a computer or other reading device. Formats include PDF, where the eBook is static, displays like the layout in the printed book, and has relatively limited functions; and ePub, where the eBook reflows and adapts to the screen size used and can include other interactive functions (such as animations, multiple choice questions).


Electronic learning; learning using electronic and digital media.

Hogrefe eContent

The online journals platform of the Hogrefe group. Individual subscribers and institutional users can search in and read in 54 journals that we publish. Non-subscribers can purchase online articles and individual issues. Content is mainly in English and German, with some French.

Hogrefe eLibrary

The eBook collection of the Hogrefe publishing group, for institutions and libraries, including more than 1,600 book titles, with German and English content.

Hogrefe OpenMind

Our “hybrid” open access publishing model for journal articles. Detailed information is here:

Impact Factor

A measure of how often, on average, articles published in a scientific journal are cited in other scientific journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field; journals with higher impact factors are often deemed to be more important than those with lower ones. More precisely: the impact factor of a journal in year X is the number of citations received in year X, of articles published in the journal during years X - 1 and X - 2, divided by the total number of articles published in that journal during the two years X - 1 and X-2.

Indexing Services

Scientific publications such as journal articles or books are listed and discoverable in various indexing services and other databases. Hogrefe distributes bibliographical and other information (such as abstracts and key words) to numerous such services, to help make science more readily findable. Services include PubMed, PsycINFO, Psyndex, Scopus, and EMCare. Details are given under the heading “Indexed in” on each Journal’s web page.


Independent online platform with tools for (mainly journal) authors. Authors can explain, link, and share short descriptions with a worldwide network of researchers and a broader audience. They can see a dashboard showing how the article is mentioned (e.g., on social networks) and its Altmetric score. Kudos is provided to authors free of charge.


Structured data records for a publication or product, which we distribute to industry and other partners. Metadata for books include bibliographic records used by bookstores (Onix) or libraries (MARC). Journal article metadata are distributed to a wide range of indexing and discovery services.

Open Access

Publication of content such as journals, journal articles, or books so that it is accessible online without technical barriers or payment by readers. Forms of open access (OA) include:

  • "Gold" open access: the final "version of record" (see below) prepared by the publisher is published OA, typically after payment of an APC (see above)
  • "Green" open access: simultaneous or subsequent OA publication of a version of the material other than the version of record (e.g., the submitted or the accepted manuscript version), typically without payment of an APC. See Hogrefe’s Sharing guidelines.
  • "Hybrid" open access: a publishing business model in which part of the content of a journal is published open access (typically paid for by authors’ APCs), part of it is published in a subscription offering (typically paid for by subscribers and readers)

Open (Research) Data

Journal articles (or books) often present and summarize results of scientific research and draw scientific conclusions from it; this is often based on analysis of research data. In keeping with the open access movement and philosophy, there is increasing interest among researchers and others in the scientific community in making such data freely available to others, without cost or unreasonable “barriers,” so that results can be examined or data used in further studies. These data must therefore be stored reliably and must also be linked to from within the article itself (and vice versa). Data protection considerations must be taken into account. Various Hogrefe journals already have open data policies, which are detailed in the respective author guidelines.

Open Educational Resources

Freely accessible learning and teaching materials.

Open Material

Freely accessible materials such as images, videos, test materials, etc.

Open Science

The term “open science” bundles the various “open” ideas (open access, open data, open peer-review) and refers to the aim of making all steps within the scientific process open, transparent, and accessible without barriers to all.

Open Source

Software with source code that is made publicly available and may be distributed and used or modified without charge in most cases.

ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID)

Internationally widely accepted unique personal identifier, used mainly by scientists and researchers, that (among other things) aims to eliminate confusion between researchers with the same name.


Generally defined as efforts to bring services or information to people where they live or spend time. In science publishing, it usually means communicating with multipliers in a specific field and with people outside of that field to increase awareness of published content.

(Pre-)Registered Reports

A publishing procedure in tune with “open science” that aims to reduce the “publishing bias” that is thought to lead to more “positive” results and fewer “negative” results being published. Basically, a manuscript (with theory, methods, planned data analysis, hypothesis, etc.) is submitted, reviewed, and accepted in principle for publication before the research is carried out. This manuscript is often called the “Stage 1” or “pre-registered” manuscript. Once the research has been carried out, the final parts of the paper (e.g., results, conclusion) are added and the final (“Stage 2”) paper is published in the journal. Several Hogrefe journals already offer authors the opportunity to publish registered reports – please refer to the respective author guidelines.


ScienceOpen is a platform where scientists can research literature published by wide range of publishers. Features such as linked references and statistics about online citations, Altmetric™ scores, user numbers, user ratings, and shares provide contextual information to the scientific community. Users can also comment on articles, or add recommendations and post-publication peer reviews. Hogrefe’s collection of open access articles has been indexed on ScienceOpen since 2017. In January 2019 we added a large part of our backlist, organized in thematic collections as well as by journal, and these collections are being updated continuously as new articles are published.

Text und Data Mining

Basically, turning large amounts of text into a set of data that can then be analyzed statistically or computationally for patterns and trends. Applications may include security (monitoring), medicine (public health), identifying bias in the media, and improving information retrieval in research.

Version of Record

A journal article typically undergoes various stages of evolution, including the manuscript originally submitted to the journal and the revised manuscript version accepted after peer review. The final, definitive version as published in the journal after copy-editing, layout, proof-reading, correction, and cross-linking of references and other items is called the version of record.